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Karteikarten nach Stichwörtern

252 Anything said is said by an observer TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Beobachter;Objektivität
Anything said is said by an observer. In his discourse the observer speaks to another observer, who could be himself; whatever applies to the one applies to the other as well. The observer is a human being, that is a living system, and whatever applies to living systems applies also to him.

253 The observer is a living system TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Beobachter;Objektivität
The observer is a living system and an understanding of cognition as a biological phenomenon must account for the observer and his role in it.

254 Living systems are units of interactions TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Kommunikation;Interaktion
Living systems are units of interactions; they exist in an ambience. From a purely biological point of view they cannot be understood independently of that part of the ambience with which they interact: the niche; nor can the niche be defined of the living system that specifies it.

255 machine as a unity TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Maschine
The relations that define a machine as a unity, and determine the dynamics of interactions and transformations which it may undergo as such a unity, constitute the organization of the machine. The actual relations which hold among the components which integrate a concrete machine in a given space, constitute its structure. The organization of a machine (or system) does not specify the properties of the components which realize the machine as a concrete system, it only specifies the relations which these must generate to constitute the machine or system as a unity. Therefore, the organization of a machine is independent of the properties of its components, which can be any, and a given machine can be realized in many different manners by many different kinds of components. In other words, although a given machine can be realized by many different structures, for it to constitute a concrete entity in a given space its actual components must be defined in that space, and have the properties which allow them to generate the relations to which define it.

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Autor: Stefan Schumacher, Stefan.Schumacher [at] Bildungswissenschaft [dot] info
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