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Karteikarten nach Stichwörtern

252 Anything said is said by an observer TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Beobachter;Objektivität
Anything said is said by an observer. In his discourse the observer speaks to another observer, who could be himself; whatever applies to the one applies to the other as well. The observer is a human being, that is a living system, and whatever applies to living systems applies also to him.

253 The observer is a living system TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Beobachter;Objektivität
The observer is a living system and an understanding of cognition as a biological phenomenon must account for the observer and his role in it.

254 Living systems are units of interactions TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Kommunikation;Interaktion
Living systems are units of interactions; they exist in an ambience. From a purely biological point of view they cannot be understood independently of that part of the ambience with which they interact: the niche; nor can the niche be defined of the living system that specifies it.

255 machine as a unity TeX Autopoiesis;Kognition;Organisation;Kybernetik;Systemtheorie;Maschine
The relations that define a machine as a unity, and determine the dynamics of interactions and transformations which it may undergo as such a unity, constitute the organization of the machine. The actual relations which hold among the components which integrate a concrete machine in a given space, constitute its structure. The organization of a machine (or system) does not specify the properties of the components which realize the machine as a concrete system, it only specifies the relations which these must generate to constitute the machine or system as a unity. Therefore, the organization of a machine is independent of the properties of its components, which can be any, and a given machine can be realized in many different manners by many different kinds of components. In other words, although a given machine can be realized by many different structures, for it to constitute a concrete entity in a given space its actual components must be defined in that space, and have the properties which allow them to generate the relations to which define it.

338 meaningful learning as deep understanding of the material TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
We define meaningful learning as deep understanding of the material, which includes attending to important aspects of the presented material, mentally organizing it into a coherent cognitive structure, and integrating it with relevant existing knowledge. Meaningful learning is reflected in the ability to apply what was taught to new situations, so we measure learning outcomes by using problem-solving transfer tests

339 meaningful learning - a mental model TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
In our research, meaningful learning involves the construction of a mental model of how a causal system works. In addition to asking whether learners can recall what was presented in a lesson (i.e., retention test), we also ask them to solve novel problems using the presented material (i.e., transfer test). All the results reported in this article are based on problem-solving transfer performance.

340 Meaningful learning - cognitive processing TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
Meaningful learning requires that the learner engage in substantial cognitive processing during learning, but the learner’s capacity for cognitive processing is severely limited. Instructional designers have come to recognize the need for multimedia instruction that is sensitive to cognitive load (...). A central challenge facing designers of multimedia instruction is the potential for cognitive overload—in which the learner’s intended cognitive processing exceeds the learner’s available cognitive capacity.

341 cognitive load - dual channel, limited capacity, active processing TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
We begin with three assumptions about how the human mind works based on research in cognitive science—the dual channel assumption, the limited capacity assumption, and the active processing assumption. (...) First, the human information-processing system consists of two separate channels—an auditory/verbal channel for processing auditory input and verbal representations and a visual/pictorial channel for processing visual input and pictorial representations. The dual-channel assumption is a central feature of Paivio’s (1986) dual-coding theory and Baddeley’s (1998) theory of working memory, although all theorists do not characterize the subsystems exactly the same way (Mayer, 2001). Second, each channel in the human information-processing system has limited capacity—only a limited amount of cognitive processing can take place in the verbal channel at any one time, and only a limited amount of cognitive processing can take place in the visual channel at any one time. This is the central assumption of Chandler and Sweller’s (1991; Sweller, 1999) cognitive load theory and Baddeley’s (1998) working memory theory. Third, meaningful learning requires a substantial amount of cognitive processing to take place in the verbal and visual channels. This is the central assumption of Wittrock’s (1989) generative-learning theory and Mayer’s (1999, 2002) selecting–organizing–integrating theory of active learning. These processes include paying attention to the presented material, mentally organizing the presented material into a coherent structure, and integrating the presented material with existing knowledge.

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