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338 meaningful learning as deep understanding of the material TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
We define meaningful learning as deep understanding of the material, which includes attending to important aspects of the presented material, mentally organizing it into a coherent cognitive structure, and integrating it with relevant existing knowledge. Meaningful learning is reflected in the ability to apply what was taught to new situations, so we measure learning outcomes by using problem-solving transfer tests

339 meaningful learning - a mental model TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
In our research, meaningful learning involves the construction of a mental model of how a causal system works. In addition to asking whether learners can recall what was presented in a lesson (i.e., retention test), we also ask them to solve novel problems using the presented material (i.e., transfer test). All the results reported in this article are based on problem-solving transfer performance.

340 Meaningful learning - cognitive processing TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
Meaningful learning requires that the learner engage in substantial cognitive processing during learning, but the learner’s capacity for cognitive processing is severely limited. Instructional designers have come to recognize the need for multimedia instruction that is sensitive to cognitive load (...). A central challenge facing designers of multimedia instruction is the potential for cognitive overload—in which the learner’s intended cognitive processing exceeds the learner’s available cognitive capacity.

341 cognitive load - dual channel, limited capacity, active processing TeX e-Learning;Kompetenz;Kompetenzentwicklung;Last!Kognitive;Kognition;
We begin with three assumptions about how the human mind works based on research in cognitive science—the dual channel assumption, the limited capacity assumption, and the active processing assumption. (...) First, the human information-processing system consists of two separate channels—an auditory/verbal channel for processing auditory input and verbal representations and a visual/pictorial channel for processing visual input and pictorial representations. The dual-channel assumption is a central feature of Paivio’s (1986) dual-coding theory and Baddeley’s (1998) theory of working memory, although all theorists do not characterize the subsystems exactly the same way (Mayer, 2001). Second, each channel in the human information-processing system has limited capacity—only a limited amount of cognitive processing can take place in the verbal channel at any one time, and only a limited amount of cognitive processing can take place in the visual channel at any one time. This is the central assumption of Chandler and Sweller’s (1991; Sweller, 1999) cognitive load theory and Baddeley’s (1998) working memory theory. Third, meaningful learning requires a substantial amount of cognitive processing to take place in the verbal and visual channels. This is the central assumption of Wittrock’s (1989) generative-learning theory and Mayer’s (1999, 2002) selecting–organizing–integrating theory of active learning. These processes include paying attention to the presented material, mentally organizing the presented material into a coherent structure, and integrating the presented material with existing knowledge.




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Autor: Stefan Schumacher, Stefan.Schumacher [at] Bildungswissenschaft [dot] info
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